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Synthesis of isoprene from formaldehyde and isobutene over phosphate catalysts

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
40769 45865 2012 9 PDF Available
Title
Synthesis of isoprene from formaldehyde and isobutene over phosphate catalysts
Abstract

Vapor phase Prins condensation of isobutene with formaldehyde has been studied over boron (BP), aluminum (AlP), titanium (TiP), zirconium (ZrP) and niobium (NbP) phosphates. The catalysts were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen, TPD of ammonia and FTIR of adsorbed pyridine. The conversion of isobutene and formaldehyde over phosphates was found to increase in the following order: BP ≪ AlP < TiP < ZrP < NbP, while the selectivity to isoprene showed the reverse tendency. The main side reaction was formaldehyde decomposition into carbon monoxide and dihydrogen. It is proposed that isoprene is formed on the Brønsted acid sites of the catalyst, while Mδ+Oδ− ion pairs are responsible for competitive carbon monoxide formation. The high resistance of ZrP and NbP catalysts to deactivation is accounted for by the in situ restoration of the Brønsted acid sites in the presence of water directly during the time course of the reaction.

Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (165 K)Download as PowerPoint slideHighlights► Formaldehyde condensation with isobutene has been studied over phosphate catalysts. ► The reactivity of phosphates increases in the following order: BP ≪ AlP < TiP < ZrP < NbP. ► The yield of isoprene correlates with the amount Brønsted acid sites. ► ZrP and NbP catalysts show high resistance to deactivation.

Keywords
Prins condensation; Isoprene; Phosphates; Deactivation
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Synthesis of isoprene from formaldehyde and isobutene over phosphate catalysts
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volumes 441–442, 28 October 2012, Pages 21–29
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
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Price was $35.95
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