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Levulinic acid esterification with ethanol to ethyl levulinate production over solid acid catalysts

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
40943 45871 2012 6 PDF Available
Title
Levulinic acid esterification with ethanol to ethyl levulinate production over solid acid catalysts
Abstract

Levulinic acid is considered as a versatile building block because it can be used for the synthesis of several organic chemicals. In particular, its esterification with ethanol produces ethyl levulinate that can be used as diesel miscible biofuel (DMB), preventing global warming by decreasing atmospheric CO2 generated from the consumption of fossil fuels. This article explores the use of two groups of solid acid catalysts (sulfated oxides and zeolites with different pore structures) in the esterification of levulinc acid with ethanol aiming for ethyl levulinate production. It was found that while there is a correlation between the number of acidic sites and activity for the sulfated oxides, the same is not true for the studied zeolites where the pore channels play a more important role. Among the catalysts tested, Amberlyst-15 and sulfated SnO2 showed a remarkable high yield of ethyl levulinate that was probably due to the strong acidity provided by SO3H functional groups and SO4 species, respectively.

Graphical abstract.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (134 K)Download as PowerPoint slideHighlight► The activity of sulfated oxides for levulinic acid esterification correlates with their acidity. ► Successive sulfations of SnO2 increase its acidity and activity. ► The pore structure of zeolites plays a role more important than that of the acidity. ► Amberlyst-15 presents a good activity and reusability.

Keywords
Levulinic acid; Ethyl levulinate; Esterification; Acid solids; Sulfated stannia; Bio-ethanol
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Levulinic acid esterification with ethanol to ethyl levulinate production over solid acid catalysts
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volumes 425–426, 28 May 2012, Pages 199–204
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us