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C–N–S tridoped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline under visible-light irradiation

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
41452 45889 2011 10 PDF Available
Title
C–N–S tridoped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline under visible-light irradiation
Abstract

C–N–S tridoped TiO2 was synthesized using a facile, cost-effective and easily scaled-up sol–gel method with titanium butoxide (Ti(OC4H9)4) as titanium precursor and thiourea as the dopant source. It was found that thiourea could suppress the crystal growth of the anatase TiO2 and inhibit its transformation from anatase to rutile phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that carbon substituted some of the oxygen to form Ti–C bonds, nitrogen was interstitially and substitutionally doped into the TiO2 lattices to form Ti–N–O, Ti–O–N and O–Ti–N, and S6+ substituted for the lattice Ti4+ to result in cationic sulfur doping. The photocatalyst with the thiourea-to-Ti molar ratio of 0.05:1 and calcined at 450 °C (T0.05–450) possessed the optimum surface elemental contents of C (12.56 at.%, excluded adventitious carbon at 284.8 eV), N (0.54 at.%) and S (1.60 at.%) based on the XPS analysis, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency of tetracycline (TC) under visible-light irradiation. This was attributed to the synergistic effects of TC adsorption on T0.05–450 due to its high specific surface area, band gap narrowing resulting from C–N–S tridoping, presence of carbonaceous species serving as photosensitizer, and well-formed anatase phase. The slightly alkaline pH condition and solar irradiation were more favorable for both the photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of TC. Microtox assay indicated that the extended solar photocatalysis was efficient in the detoxification of TC solution.

Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (228 K)Download as PowerPoint slideHighlights► Visible-light responsive C–N–S tridoped TiO2 was synthesized using a sol–gel method. ► The photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of tetracycline were more efficient under solar irradiation. ► The extended solar photocatalysis was efficient in the detoxification of tetracycline solution according to the Microtox assay.

Keywords
C–N–S tridoped TiO2; Visible light; Solar; Tetracycline; Acute toxicity
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C–N–S tridoped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline under visible-light irradiation
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 399, Issues 1–2, 31 May 2011, Pages 252–261
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us