Solvent-free aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol over Pd monometallic and Au–Pd bimetallic catalysts supported on SBA-16 mesoporous molecular sieves
Pd monometallic and Au–Pd bimetallic catalysts supported on surface-functionalized SBA-16 were prepared by a conventional adsorption method and were examined using X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, UV–vis spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission microscopy. SBA-16 with the unique “super-cage” structure effectively controlled the formation of dispersed noble metal nanoparticles in the mesoporous channels. These confined nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the solvent-free benzyl alcohol selective oxidation with molecular oxygen. Amine-functionalization remarkably improved the selectivity towards benzaldehyde. Au–Pd bimetallic catalysts showed enhanced catalytic performance compared to the Au and Pd monometallic catalysts. The highest turnover frequency of 8667 h−1 was achieved over a bimetallic catalyst with Au:Pd molar ratio of 1:5; this good catalytic activity can be maintained after five recycling runs. The characterization results of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic catalyst was constructed of uniformly alloyed nanoparticles with Pd cluster-on-Au cluster structure. The synergetic effect between Au and Pd nanocluster was suggested to account for the better catalytic activity of bimetallic catalysts because the size-dependent effect can be ruled out due to the effective confinement of noble metal nanoparticles by SBA-16 mesostructure.
Graphical abstractHighly dispersed Au–Pd nanoparticles with substantially similar mean particle size were confined using SBA-16. These nanoparticles exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the solvent-free benzyl alcohol aerobic oxidation due to the synergetic effect of Au and Pd, while the size-dependent effect was excluded. The bimetallic nanoparticles were uniformly alloyed with Pd cluster-on-Au cluster structure.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (186 K)Download as PowerPoint slide
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 380, Issues 1–2, 31 May 2010, Pages 55–65