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Condensation reactions of propanal over CexZr1−xO2 mixed oxide catalysts

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
41970 45906 2010 12 PDF Available
Title
Condensation reactions of propanal over CexZr1−xO2 mixed oxide catalysts
Abstract

Vapor phase condensation reactions of propanal were investigated over CexZr1−xO2 mixed oxides as a model reaction to produce gasoline range molecules from short aldehydes found in bio-oil mixtures. Several operating parameters were investigated. These included the type of carrier gas used (H2 or He) and the incorporation of acids and water in the feed. Propanal is converted to higher carbon chain oxygenates on CexZr1−xO2 by two pathways, aldol condensation and ketonization. The major products of these condensation reactions include 3-pentanone, 2-methyl-2-pentenal, 2-methylpentanal, 3-heptanone and 4-methyl-3-heptanone. It is proposed that the primary intermediate for the ketonization path is a surface carboxylate. The presence of acids in the feed inhibits the aldol condensation pathway by competitive adsorption that reduces the aldehyde conversion. Water also promotes ketonization and inhibits aldol condensation by increasing the concentration of surface hydroxyl groups that enhance the formation of surface carboxylates with the aldehyde. Hydrogen enhances cracking and production of light oxygenates and hydrocarbons. The light oxygenates may in turn be reincorporated into the reaction path, giving secondary products. However, the hydrocarbons do not react further. Analysis of the fresh and spent catalysts by XPS showed varying degrees of reduction of the oxide under different operating conditions that were consistent with the reaction results. Changing the proportion of the parent oxides showed that increased Zr favored formation of aldol products while increased Ce favored ketonization. This occurs by shifting the balance of the acid–base properties of the active sites.

Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (63 K)Download as PowerPoint slideResearch highlights▶ Vapor phase condensation reactions of propanal were investigated over CexZr1−xO2 mixed oxides. ▶ Operating parameters investigated included the type of carrier gas used (H2 or He) and the incorporation of acids and water in the feed. ▶ Propanal is converted to higher carbon chain oxygenates on CexZr1−xO2 by two pathways, aldol condensation and ketonization. ▶ The presence of acids in the feed inhibits the aldol condensation pathway by competitive adsorption that reduces the aldehyde conversion. ▶ Water also promotes ketonization and inhibits aldol condensation.

Keywords
Coupling; Aldol condensation; Ketonization; Biofuels; Ceria; Zirconia; Propanal; Mixed oxides; XPS
First Page Preview
Condensation reactions of propanal over CexZr1−xO2 mixed oxide catalysts
Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 385, Issues 1–2, 15 September 2010, Pages 80–91
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis