endo- to exo-Isomerization of dicyclopentadiene over zeolites
The endo- to exo-isomerization of dicyclopentadiene was performed in liquid phase using acidic zeolites. Among the zeolites tested, the activity order is Hβ > HY > HUSY > HZSM-5 ≈ H-mordenite. Beta and Y-type zeolites exhibit higher activity because of their large three-dimensional channels. Surface passivation of Hβ confirms that the reaction proceeds in the inner channels. TG measurements verify that HY is deactivated very quickly because the strong acidity induces serious coke formation, but this phenomenon is much less over beta zeolites. Evaluation on Hβ with different SiO2/Al2O3 ratios indicates that both the weak Lewis acid concentration and isomerization activity of zeolites monotonically decrease with the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio. Thus a weak acid, especially a weak Lewis acid, of Hβ is responsible for the isomerization reaction. Calcination at 500 °C provides the highest activity due to complete removal of template residues, generation of large amounts of weak Lewis acid, and good crystal structure. The Hβ concentration was also studied: the optimal value is 15 wt%. Zeolites deactivated due to coke deposition can be regenerated by calcination in air flow at 500 °C, and there was no obvious activity loss after four times’ regeneration.
Graphical abstractendo-Dicyclopentadiene is isomerized to its exo-isomer using commercial zeolites in liquid phase, which presents an environmentally friendly route for synthesizing exo-dicyclopentadiene. Many factors were analyzed including pore structures and acidity, SiO2/Al2O3 ratio, calcination temperature, and catalyst concentration. Weak Lewis acid and large pore structure were found to contribute to the isomerization. The catalyst can be easily regenerated with stable activity.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 367, Issues 1–2, 1 October 2009, Pages 84–88