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Esterification of fatty acids to biodiesel over polymers with sulfonic acid groups

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
42517 45929 2009 6 PDF Available
Title
Esterification of fatty acids to biodiesel over polymers with sulfonic acid groups
Abstract

The esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied using poly(vinyl alcohol) cross-linked with sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) and polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene with sulfonic acid groups, as catalysts, at 60 °C. It was observed that the PVA matrixes with sulfonic acid groups were more active than the polystyrene ones. With the most active polymeric matrix (PVA_SSA40), an almost 90% equilibrium conversion was achieved after 2 h.Further, the optimisation of reaction parameters, such as, catalyst loading, molar ratio alcohol to fatty acid and type of alcohol was carried out with PVA_SSA40 catalyst.Catalytic stability of the PVA_SSA40 was evaluated by performing consecutive batch runs with the same catalyst sample. After the second batch, a stabilisation of the catalytic activity was observed.The PVA_SSA40 was also used as catalyst in the esterification of oleic and stearic acid with methanol, having been obtained an equilibrium conversion of almost 80%.In order to become the biodiesel totally biogenerated, the esterification of palmitic acid was carried out with ethanol, at 60 °C and 80 °C. It was observed that the reaction rate is slower when the reaction is carried out with methanol, at 60 °C.In a posterior catalytic experiment at 60 °C, PVA_SSA40 showed catalytic activity to obtain biodiesel from animal fats (lard), in the presence of methanol.

Graphical abstractThe esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied using poly(vinyl alcohol) cross-linked with sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) and polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene with sulfonic acid groups, as catalysts, at 60 °C. It was observed that the PVA matrixes with sulfonic acid groups were more active than the polystyrene ones. The PVA_SSA40 was also used as catalyst in the esterification of oleic and stearic acid.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

Keywords
Biodiesel; PVA; PS; Sulfonic acid groups; Esterification; Free fatty acids
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Esterification of fatty acids to biodiesel over polymers with sulfonic acid groups
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 359, Issues 1–2, 15 May 2009, Pages 41–46
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
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Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
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Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
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