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Esterification of free fatty acids for biodiesel production over heteropoly tungstate supported on niobia catalysts

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
42603 45933 2009 6 PDF Available
Title
Esterification of free fatty acids for biodiesel production over heteropoly tungstate supported on niobia catalysts
Abstract

A series of catalysts containing 5–30 wt% of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) supported on niobia were prepared and their catalytic activity was evaluated for esterification of free fatty acids with methanol. The catalysts were characterized by FT-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia. The esterification activity depends on the content of TPA on niobia; the catalyst with 25 wt% of TPA exhibited highest activity. The best catalyst was subjected to different calcination temperatures to study the structural changes. We observed that esterification activity depends upon the structural variations of the catalyst. The effects of reaction variables such as catalyst loading, methanol to acid ratio, reaction time and temperature on the conversion of fatty acid were studied. The esterification activity of the catalysts is correlated with the characteristics of the catalysts.

Graphical abstractEsterification of free fatty acids of sunflower oil was efficiently carried out over niobia supported heteropoly tungstate under mild conditions. The activity of the catalyst depends on the amount of tungstate and on the calcination temperature of the catalyst. The esterification activity of the catalysts is correlated with the characteristics of the catalysts. The catalyst is easily recyclable and exhibited consistent activity upon reuse.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

Keywords
Esterification; Sunflower oil free fatty acids; Palmitic acid; Methanol; Tungstophosphoric acid; Niobia
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Esterification of free fatty acids for biodiesel production over heteropoly tungstate supported on niobia catalysts
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 365, Issue 1, 15 August 2009, Pages 28–33
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us