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An effect of iron(III) oxides crystallinity on their catalytic efficiency and applicability in phenol degradation—A competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
42671 45936 2009 8 PDF Available
Title
An effect of iron(III) oxides crystallinity on their catalytic efficiency and applicability in phenol degradation—A competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis
Abstract

Catalytic efficiency, stability and environmental applicability of five iron(III) oxide nanopowders differing in surface area and crystallinity were tested in degradation of concentrated phenolic aqueous solutions (100 g/L) at mild temperature (30 °C), initially almost neutral pH and equimolar ratio of hydrogen peroxide and phenol. The catalyst properties were easily controlled by varying in reaction time during isothermal treatment of ferrous oxalate dihydrate in air at 175 °C. Although the catalytic efficiency clearly increases with the surface area of the nanopowders, it is not due to the solely heterogeneous catalytic mechanism as would be expected. The amorphous Fe2O3 nanopowders possessing the largest surface areas (401 m2 g−1, 386 m2 g−1) are the most efficient catalysts evidently due to their highest susceptibility to leaching in acidic environment arising as a consequence of phenol degradation products. Thus, these amorphous samples act partially as homogeneous catalysts, which was confirmed by a high concentration of leached Fe(III) ions in the solution (∼19 ppm). The crystalline hematite (α-Fe2O3) samples, varying in surface area between 337 m2 g−1 and 245 m2 g−1, are generally less efficient when compared to the amorphous powders, however their catalytic action is almost exclusively heterogeneous as only 3 ppm of leached Fe(III) was found in the reaction systems catalyzed by nanohematite samples. A significant difference in relative contributions of heterogeneous and homogenous catalysis was definitely established in buffered reaction systems catalyzed by amorphous Fe2O3 and nanocrystalline hematite. The nanohematite sample exhibiting the highest heterogeneous action was tested at decreased initial phenol concentration (10 g/L), which is closer to the real contents of phenol in waste waters, and at different hydrogen peroxide/phenol molar ratios to consider its environmental applicability. At the hydrogen peroxide/phenol ratio equal to 5, no traces of the leached iron were detected and the phenol conversion of 84% was reached. Moreover, such a high degree of conversion is accompanied by a decrease of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the initial value of 11.23 g/L to 4.22 g/L after 125 min. This fact indicates that the considerable fraction of primary reaction products was totally degraded.

Graphical abstractNanocrystalline and amorphous Fe2O3 catalysts in phenol degradation are compared. Amorphous nanopowders are partially susceptible to leaching in acidic media and therefore act as mixed homogeneous/heterogeneous catalysts. Nanocrystalline Fe2O3 catalysts, on the other hand, remain stable during the phenol degradation process and act almost solely by a heterogeneous way.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

Keywords
Amorphous; Nanoparticles; Fenton; H2O2; Phenol; Catalyst; Decomposition
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An effect of iron(III) oxides crystallinity on their catalytic efficiency and applicability in phenol degradation—A competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 366, Issue 2, 25 September 2009, Pages 325–332
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
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Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
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