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Highly selective vapor phase nitration of toluene to 4-nitro toluene using modified and unmodified H3PO4/ZSM-5

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
43071 45954 2009 8 PDF Available
Title
Highly selective vapor phase nitration of toluene to 4-nitro toluene using modified and unmodified H3PO4/ZSM-5
Abstract

The nitration of toluene has been studied in the vapor phase at various temperatures over a series of surface modified and unmodified ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 170) loaded with H3PO4, differing in the external surface treatment of the zeolites. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET and FT-IR. The nature of acid sites of the supports, i.e., H3PO4/ZSM-5-surf-170 and H3PO4/ZSM-5-170 was determined using FT-IR-pyridine adsorption study. 2,4,6-Trimethyl pyridine adsorption was used for calculating the external surface acidity of the H3PO4/ZSM-5-surf-170 and H3PO4/ZSM-5-170. The superior performance of the externally blocked catalysts (modified) relevant to the H3PO4/ZSM-5-170 catalyst shows that by blocking the external surface area of the ZSM-5 support, it exhibits a superior catalytic selectivity than the unmodified catalyst. Catalysts containing 0–4.9 wt.% P were prepared using ZSM-5-surf-170 and ZSM-5-170, and their catalytic performance was determined for the vapor phase nitration of toluene to 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT), 2-nitrotoluene (2-NT) and oxidation products. The effect of reaction temperature, H3PO4 content, feed ratio of toluene to HNO3, WHSV, TOS and carrier gas flow rate was also investigated.

Graphical abstractVapor phase nitration of toluene with nitric acid over H3PO4/ZSM-5-surf-170 (2.1 wt.% P) has been investigated. In this reaction, 4-nitro toluene was found to be the major product when 2-nitro toluene was very negligible in the product stream; 3-NT was not detected and oxidation products were trace.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

Keywords
Vapor phase; Nitration; Cationic surfactant; H3PO4; Modified ZSM-5; Toluene; 4-Nitrotoluene
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Highly selective vapor phase nitration of toluene to 4-nitro toluene using modified and unmodified H3PO4/ZSM-5
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 353, Issue 1, 31 January 2009, Pages 1–8
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us