Effect of P/Fe ratio on the structure and ammoxidation functionality of Fe-P-O catalysts
Bulk FePO4 catalysts, with varying P/Fe atomic ratio in the range of 1–1.6, were prepared and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TPR, Potentiometric titration, Laser Raman, TEM, XPS and TG/DTA techniques in order to study the influence of P/Fe atomic ratio on the nature and extent of the active phase formation. The data obtained from XRD and Laser Raman techniques suggested predominant formation of the quartz type iron phosphate at close to stoichiometric P/Fe ratio, but as the ratio increased beyond 1.4 a progressive transformation of monomeric phosphate into its polymeric form was observed. XPS spectra reflected the presence of iron in its 3+ state when P/Fe ≤ 1.2 and exists as Fe2+ and Fe3+ when P/Fe ≥ 1.4. The catalytic properties of these iron phosphates were studied in the vapor phase ammoxidation, taking 2-methylpyrazine (MP) to 2-cyanopyrazine (CP) as an example. The ammoxidation activity of the catalysts was found to be proportional to the extent of quartz phase formed which in turn was proportional to the redox property, as observed by the oxidation functionality of the catalysts in benzyl alcohol transformation. However, the selectivity to nitrile was found to be dependent on the acid strength of the catalysts.
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Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 334, Issues 1–2, 1 January 2008, Pages 10–19