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Comparison of commercial solid acid catalysts for the esterification of acetic acid with butanol

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
44284 46013 2006 7 PDF Available
Title
Comparison of commercial solid acid catalysts for the esterification of acetic acid with butanol
Abstract

Esterification of acetic acid with butanol has been studied in a heterogeneous reaction system, using a variety of solid acid catalysts. Comparative esterification experiments have been carried out using the homogeneous catalysts sulphuric acid, p-toluenesulphuric acid and a heteropolyacid. The catalysts have been characterised using gas adsorption analysis (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and temperature-programmed decomposition (TPD) techniques. The weight-based activity of the heterogeneous catalysts decreases in the following order: Smopex-101 > Amberlyst 15 > sulphated ZrO2 > H-USY-20 > H-BETA-12.5 > H-MOR-45 > Nb2O5 > H-ZSM-5-12.5. The low activity of ZSM-5 is a result of internal diffusion limitations in the medium sized pores of this zeolite type material. For H-MOR the low activity can be explained by pore blocking in the one-dimensional H-MOR channels. For the H-USY-type zeolites, the influence of the Si/Al ratio on catalytic activity has been examined. Although the amount of acid sites decreases with an increase in the Si/Al ratio, an optimum Si/Al ratio of 20 has been found. The activity of sulphated zirconia shows an optimum calcination temperature, even though both the amount and acidity of the acid sites increase monotonically with calcination temperature. Most likely, at higher calcination temperatures Lewis acid sites are formed and Brønsted acid sites are removed. As Brønsted acid sites are essential for catalysis of esterification reactions this explains the decrease in activity.

Keywords
Esterification; Heterogeneous catalysis; Kinetics; Solid acid catalyst
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Comparison of commercial solid acid catalysts for the esterification of acetic acid with butanol
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 297, Issue 2, 6 January 2006, Pages 182–188
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
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Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
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