MoVO-based catalysts for the oxidation of ethane to ethylene and acetic acid: Influence of niobium and/or palladium on physicochemical and catalytic properties
The influence of niobium and/or palladium in MoV0.4Ox on both solid state chemistry and catalytic properties in the oxidation of ethane to acetic acid and ethylene is examined. Catalysts without molybdenum (VNb0.31Pd3e-4Ox) are also studied for comparison. The structural properties of the precursors and of the catalysts obtained by calcination of precursors at 350 and 400 °C are studied by X-ray diffraction, and by laser Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. These properties depend on the presence or absence of niobium, and to a lesser extent, of palladium. Nb-free precursors and catalysts are heterogeneous mixtures of crystalline oxides, among which hexagonal and orthorhombic MoO3. The presence of Pd favors the instability of both precursors and catalysts. The catalysts are poorly active (conversion <4%), but they are mainly selective to acetic acid (SAA max = 61–73 mol%) and to COx (SCOx max=30−72 mol%SCOx max=30−72 mol%). The Nb-containing precursors without or with Pd are more stable, and the catalysts are made up of nanocrystalline particles of V, Nb-doped Mo5O14 and of VxMo1−xO3−x/2. They are active (conversion <15%) and very selective to ethylene and acetic acid (Stot = 90–96 mol%). The surface being enriched with vanadium in most cases, the discussion deals with the relative role of Nb and Pd and their possible location in the identified oxides. Because no M1 and/or M2 oxides could be identified, synergistic effects between nanocrystals of (VMoNb)5O14 and VxMo1−xO3−0.5x are proposed to account for the high catalytic performance of the multicomponent MoVNb(Pd) oxides.
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 308, 10 July 2006, Pages 62–74