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Hydrophobic, solid acid catalysts for production of biofuels and lubricants

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
44467 46033 2006 12 PDF Available
Title
Hydrophobic, solid acid catalysts for production of biofuels and lubricants
Abstract

A novel application of Fe–Zn double-metal cyanide (DMC) complexes as solid catalysts in the preparation of fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel/biolubricants) from vegetable oils is reported. The catalysts are hydrophobic (no H2O adsorption at reaction temperatures) and contain only Lewis acidic sites (NH3 and pyridine adsorption). Brönsted acid sites are absent (absence of 1546 and 1639 cm−1 bands on adsorption of pyridine). Basic sites are also absent (no CO2 adsorption). Unlike the homogeneous or other solid catalysts (like ZnO–Al2O3, for example), the Fe–Zn, DMC catalysts are highly active even for the simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of the free fatty acids (FFA) present in unrefined and waste cooking oils as well as non-edible oils. They are also tolerant of water, probably, due to their surface hydrophobicity. A relationship between the transesterification activity and the concentration of strong Lewis acid sites has been observed. Coordinatively unsaturated Zn2+ ions in the structure of the Fe–Zn complex are the probable active sites.

Graphical abstractA novel application of Fe–Zn double-metal cyanide (DMC) complexes as solid acid catalysts in the preparation of fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel/biolubricants) from vegetable oils is reported. Unlike the homogeneous or other solid catalysts (like ZnO-Al2O3, for example), the Fe–Zn DMC catalysts are highly active even for the simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of the free fatty acids present in unrefined and waste cooking oils as well as non-edible oils. They are also tolerant of water, probably, due to their surface hydrophobicity. Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

Keywords
Transesterification of vegetable oils; Alcoholysis of vegetable oils; Esterification of free fatty acids; Fatty acid alkyl esters; Fatty acid methyl esters; Biodiesel; Biolubricants; Double-metal cyanides (DMC); Solid Fe–Zn catalysts
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Hydrophobic, solid acid catalysts for production of biofuels and lubricants
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis A: General - Volume 314, Issue 2, 9 November 2006, Pages 148–159
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
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Price was $35.95
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