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Structure-reactivity relationship in catalytic hydrogenation of heterocyclic compounds over ruthenium black; Part B: Effect of carbon substitution by heteroatom

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
44914 46375 2015 12 PDF Available
Title
Structure-reactivity relationship in catalytic hydrogenation of heterocyclic compounds over ruthenium black; Part B: Effect of carbon substitution by heteroatom
Abstract

•Chemical structure of LOC influences its hydrogenation reactivity and selectivity.•The adsorption mode of compounds is affected by the type of heteroatom present.•The rate of hydrogenation is strongly influenced by the aromaticity of the LOC.•Substitution of C with N offers the most optimum structure design of LOC.

The effect of the type of heteroatom in the structure on the recyclability of possible candidate compounds for application as LOC (liquid organic carriers) was studied by comparing the rate and selectivity obtained in hydrogenation of carbazole, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran and fluorene. The effect of a partial saturation of the compound on its hydrogenation yield and reaction pathway was also considered by studying hydrogenation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole. Using Ru black catalyst, the rate of hydrogenation was found to decrease in order; dibenzofuran > 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole > carbazole >> fluorene. No reaction was observed in the hydrogenation of dibenzothiophene under the conditions studied which was attributed to the immediate poisoning of ruthenium metal by sulphur compounds. The rate of hydrogenation of fluorene was around 3 times lower as compared to carbazole and over 8 times lower as compared to that of dibenzofuran under the same reaction conditions. With the exeption of S containing dibenzothiophene, the presence of the heteroatom in the structure was found to be beneficial in terms of increasing the rate of hydrogen loading step. Additionally, a higher reaction rate was obtained in the hydrogenation of the partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole as compared to the substrate carbazole. The structure and stability of intermediates was found to be significantly influenced by the type and presence of a heteroatom in the structure. A stable octahydro-intermediate was observed only with N-heterocycles, whereas a stable hexahydro-intermediate was produced in the polyaromatic hydrocarbon-fluorene. Additionally, the theoretically obtained lowest total enthalpies using DFT calculations agreed well with the stable intermediates observed experimentally in the hydrogenation of fluorene. Theoretical DFT differences in enthalpies also indicated the products of hydrogenolysis of perhydro-dibenzofuran to be the most favourable products of its hydrogenation, which agreed well with the experimental observations. Overall, taking into account the recyclability of LOC, substitution of carbon with a N heteroatom was demonstrated to be one of the promising approaches to improve the kinetics of the hydrogen loading step.

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Keywords
Hydrogen storage; Liquid organic hydride; Heterocyclic compounds; Hydrogenation; Ruthenium catalysts
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Structure-reactivity relationship in catalytic hydrogenation of heterocyclic compounds over ruthenium black; Part B: Effect of carbon substitution by heteroatom
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental - Volume 163, February 2015, Pages 599–610
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
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Price was $35.95
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Price after discount Only $4.95
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