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Diels–Alder cycloaddition of 2-methylfuran and ethylene for renewable toluene

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
45267 46407 2016 10 PDF Available
Title
Diels–Alder cycloaddition of 2-methylfuran and ethylene for renewable toluene
Abstract

•Reaction via tandem reactions exhibits two distinct kinetic regimes.•Density of zeolites strongly control the selectivity to side products.•A model with DFT/ONIOM-derived parameters captures tandem catalytic kinetics.•Reduced symmetry of the oxanorbornene results in competing dehydration pathways.

Diels–Alder cycloaddition of biomass-derived 2-methylfuran and ethylene provides a thermochemical pathway to renewable toluene. In this work, the kinetics and reaction pathways of toluene formation have been evaluated with H-BEA and Sn-BEA catalysts. Kinetic analysis of the main reaction chemistries reveals the existence of two rate-controlling reactions: (i) Diels–Alder cycloaddition of 2-methylfuran and ethylene where the production rate is independent of the Brønsted acid site concentration, and (ii) dehydration of the Diels–Alder cycloadduct where the production rate is dependent on the Brønsted acid site concentration. Application of a reduced kinetic model supports the interplay of these two regimes with the highest concentration of toluene measured at a catalyst loading equal to the transition region between the two kinetic regimes. Selectivity to toluene never exceeded 46%, as 2-methylfuran was consumed by several newly identified reactions to side products, including dimerization of 2-methylfuran, the formation of a trimer following hydrolysis and ring-opening of 2-methylfuran, and the incomplete dehydration of the Diels–Alder cycloadduct of 2-methylfuran and ethylene.

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Keywords
Biomass; Toluene; Diels–Alder; Zeolite; Furan
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Diels–Alder cycloaddition of 2-methylfuran and ethylene for renewable toluene
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental - Volume 180, January 2016, Pages 487–496
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us