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Esterification and transesterification of waste cooking oil over Amberlyst 15 and modified Amberlyst 15 catalysts

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
45606 46416 2015 8 PDF Available
Title
Esterification and transesterification of waste cooking oil over Amberlyst 15 and modified Amberlyst 15 catalysts
Abstract

•Amberlyst15 was modified and used for transesterification and esterification reactions.•Methyl ester yields, as high as 78%, were reached by using Amberlyst 15 catalyst.•A constant free fatty acid, FFA, conversion of 40% was observed for all FFA levels.•Amberlyst 15 would be only feasible if the water that is generated is removed.•Activity of Amberlyst 15 did not deteriorate after reuse for at least three cycles.

Biodiesel production via the simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions of waste cooking oil (WCO) with methanol was investigated. A batch reflux reactor was used in conjunction with acidic ion-exchange catalysts, i.e., Amberlyst 15 and modified Amberlyst 15. The activity of the Amberlyst 15 catalysts could be altered via heat treatment at temperatures that are ≥493 K, as a consequence of the reduction of the active surface (SO3H). The hydrogen ion-exchange capacities of the catalysts ranged from 2.5 meq H+/g to 5.1 meq H+/g. The reaction parameters included the molar ratio of alcohol to oil (6:1–15:1), reaction temperature (298–338 K), catalyst concentration (1–9 wt.%), reaction time (1–72 h) and the free fatty acid content (1.04–8.04%). It was observed that the activities of the Amberlyst 15 and modified Amberlyst 15 catalysts increased linearly with increasing hydrogen ion-exchange capacities of the catalysts. Amberlyst 15 exhibited the highest hydrogen ion-exchange capacity and consequently generated the highest biodiesel yield of (78 ± 3.39%). The esterification reaction of excess fatty acids was also investigated. When the esterification and transesterification reactions were carried out simultaneously, the water generated from the esterification of free fatty acids led to the hydrolysis of triglycerides and reduced the biodiesel yield emphasizing the necessity for the removal of the water during concomitant esterification of excess fatty free acids present and the transesterification of the triglycerides for biodiesel production.

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Keywords
Waste cooking oil; Biodiesel; Acidic transesterification; Amberlyst 15
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Esterification and transesterification of waste cooking oil over Amberlyst 15 and modified Amberlyst 15 catalysts
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental - Volume 165, April 2015, Pages 723–730
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us