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Catalytic gasification of indole in supercritical water

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
45711 46421 2015 9 PDF Available
Title
Catalytic gasification of indole in supercritical water
Abstract

•The first report on supercritical water gasification of a N-containing compound over supported metal catalysts.•Demonstrated efficacy of Ni–Ru/CeO2 bimetallic catalysts for supercritical water gasification of indole.•Determined influences of operating conditions and catalyst composition on gas and liquid product distribution.

We tested Ru/C, Pt/C, Pd/C, Pt/Al2O3, Pd/Al2O3, activated carbon, and Ni–Ru/CeO2 catalysts for the gasification of indole in supercritical water. All of the materials enhanced the gasification of this nitrogen-containing compound, but the bimetallic catalyst, Ni–Ru/CeO2, showed the highest activity for producing CO and CH4 and for converting indole. We focused on this catalyst in more detail. The catalyst loading in the reactor has no effect on the H2 yield, but both CH4 and CO2 yields decrease with decreased loading. Water density has no statistically significant effect on the yield of gas products, but operating above the critical pressure of water is a prerequisite for the Ni–Ru composite catalyst to reach a high conversion of indole. The catalyst surface area and pore volume decrease from 5.91 m2 g−1 and 0.0169 cm3 g−1 to 2.86 m2 g−1 and 0.0137 cm3 g−1, respectively, after an SCWG reaction time of 180 min. NiO species were detected in both fresh and used catalysts and may be due to oxidation of the reduced Ni metal during sample preparation for XPS analysis, and/or a strong interaction between metal and support possibly leading to the formation of cationic Ni species. These results point to potential benefits of using this bimetallic catalyst for SCWG of streams with recalcitrant N-containing compounds.

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Keywords
Supercritical water gasification; Bimetallic catalyst, Nickel; Ruthenium; Cerium oxide.
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental - Volumes 166–167, May 2015, Pages 202–210
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
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Full-text PDF Download
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Any Questions? feel free to contact us