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Low and non-platinum electrocatalysts for PEMFCs: Current status, challenges and prospects

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
46298 46436 2012 18 PDF Available
Title
Low and non-platinum electrocatalysts for PEMFCs: Current status, challenges and prospects
Abstract

Platinum-based nanomaterials are the most commonly adopted electrocatalysts for both anode and cathode reactions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) fed with hydrogen or low molecular alcohols. However, the scarce world reserves of Pt and its high price increases the total cost of the system and thus limits the feasibility of PEMFCs. Based on this problem, for PEMFCs to have wide practical applications and become commercially viable, the challenging issue of the high catalyst cost resulting from the exclusive adoption of Pt or Pt-based catalysts should be addressed. One of the targets of the scientific community is to reduce the Pt loading in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) to ca  . 150 μg cmMEA−2, simultaneously maintaining high PEMFCs performances. The present paper aims at providing the state-of-the-art of low Pt and non-Pt electrocatalysts for: (a) H2-O2PEMFCs, (b) Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) and (c) Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells (DEFCs). The detailed analysis of a big number of recent investigations has shown that the highest mass specific power density (MSPD) value obtained for H2-O2PEMFCs   has far exceeded the 2015 target (5 mW μgPttotal-1) set by the USA department of energy, while a several number of investigations reported values between 1 and 5 mW μgPt−1. However, the highest values measured under DMFCs and DEFCs working conditions are still relatively low and close to 0.15 and 0.05 mW μgPt−1 respectively. Moreover, the last years, promising results have been reported concerning the design, fabrication, characterization, and testing of novel non-Pt (Pt-free) anodes and cathodes for PEMFCs applications.

Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideHighlights► The highest reported mass specific power density value for H2-PEMFCs has far exceeded the 2015 target (5 mW μgPttotal−1). ► A several number of investigations reported values 1–5 mW μgPttotal−1 for a H2-PEMFCs. ► The highest mass specific power density for DMFCs was ca.  0.15 mW μgPttotal−1. ► The highest mass specific power density for DEFCs was ca.  0.05 mW μgPttotal−1. ► Design and testing of novel non-Pt anodes and cathodes in fuel cells is increasing.

Keywords
Low Pt loading electrocatalysts; Non-Pt electrocatalysts; H2-PEMFCs; DMFCs; DEFCs
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental - Volume 127, 30 October 2012, Pages 371–388
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us