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Sulfonic acid-functionalized aerogels as high resistant to deactivation catalysts for the etherification of glycerol with isobutene

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
46336 46437 2013 7 PDF Available
Title
Sulfonic acid-functionalized aerogels as high resistant to deactivation catalysts for the etherification of glycerol with isobutene
Abstract

Silica aerogel and lyogel have been successfully sulfonated in one step by a simple post-synthesis method using microwaves as well as conventional heating. The use of microwaves allowed loading higher amounts of sulfonic acid groups in both silicas, according to the higher S/Si atomic ratio determined by XPS, and the higher sulfur content determined by TGA, also exhibiting lower surface area and higher acidity. Sulfonated aerogels showed higher conversion and selectivity to h-GTBE (glycerol di- and tri-ethers) than sulfonated lyogels for the acid-catalyzed etherification of glycerol with isobutene. This was attributed to the higher content of sulfonic acid groups incorporated in aerogel. Microwave-assisted sulfonated aerogel yielded 75% of selectivity to h-GTBE, which can be used as fuel additive, for practically total conversion. Interestingly, larger porosity of aerogel avoided the partial blocking of pores by reaction products observed when other micro- and mesoporous catalysts were tested for this reaction. The combination of high conversion, high selectivity to h-GTBE, practically no formation of undesired di-isobutylenes and very high resistance to catalyst deactivation makes microwave-assisted sulfonic acid functionalized aerogel a promising catalyst for this etherification reaction.

Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideHighlights► Silica aerogel and lyogel have been succesfully sulfonated by post-synthesis. ► Microwaves allowed loading higher amounts of sulfonic groups in aerogel and lyogel. ► Aerogel samples showed higher conversion and selectivity to h-GTBE than lyogel ones. ► Microwave-assisted sulfonated aerogel led the highest selectivity to h-GTBE (75%). ► Large porosity of functionalized aerogel makes this material high resistant to deactivation.

Keywords
Aerogel; Lyogel; Sulfonic acid-functionalization; Microwaves; Glycerol etherification; Deactivation
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Sulfonic acid-functionalized aerogels as high resistant to deactivation catalysts for the etherification of glycerol with isobutene
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental - Volumes 136–137, 5 June 2013, Pages 287–293
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us