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RuSn bimetallic catalysts for selective hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
46384 46438 2012 9 PDF Available
Title
RuSn bimetallic catalysts for selective hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone
Abstract

Carbon-supported ruthenium catalysts containing different amounts of tin were studied for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to gamma-valerolactone (GVL) in a 2-sec-butyl-phenol (SBP) solvent. Results from reaction kinetics measurements (453 K and 35 bar H2) showed that the Ru/C catalyst was initially more active for hydrogenation of both LA and SBP (i.e., 0.051 s−1 for conversion of LA to GVL), followed by continuous deactivation versus time on stream. In contrast, the catalyst containing equal amounts of Ru and Sn had a lower activity for LA to GVL conversion (0.005 s−1), but displayed stable activity versus time on stream and showed 100% selectivity for hydrogenation of LA versus the SBP solvent. Increasing the amount of Sn to a 1 to 4 Ru:Sn atomic ratio creates an additional phase, β-Sn, that is not active for hydrogenation, leaches into the SBP solvent, and sinters under reaction conditions. Results from CO and O2 chemisorption and electron microscopy measurements indicated that the Ru-based metal particles did not leach or sinter at reaction conditions, and that the surfaces of these particles became progressively enriched with Sn as the Sn-loading increases. In addition, Sn did not significantly leach from the catalysts when present as an intermetallic alloy with Ru, such as Ru2Sn3 and Ru3Sn7. Using LA produced from corn stover, the RuSn4/C catalyst was stable and demonstrated that it is a promising catalyst to produce valuable chemicals and fuels from real biomass.

Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideHighlights► Ru–Sn catalysts can hydrogenate levulinic acid to gamma-valerolactone in presence of alkylphenol solvents. ► Several phases exist for Ru–Sn systems: monometallic Ru and Sn and bimetallic RuSn. ► The monometallic Ru phase is the most active, but deactivates with time on stream. ► Addition of Sn to Ru/C forms alloys that improve catalyst selectivity and stability. ► RuSn4/C has proven to be stable even using levulinic acid produced from corn stover.

Keywords
Alkylphenol; Biomass; Heterogeneous catalysis; Renewable resources; Bimetallic
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RuSn bimetallic catalysts for selective hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental - Volumes 117–118, 18 May 2012, Pages 321–329
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us