Ethanol supercritical route for fabricating bimodal carbon modified mesoporous TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic capability in degrading phenol
This paper reports the fabrication of a novel mesoporous C-TiO2 photocatalyst via an ethanol supercritical solvothermal method involving tetrabutyl titanate and raw rice. Such as-prepared C-TiO2 possessed a bimodal carbon-modification effect, including carbon doping in the lattice of TiO2 and carbon sensitizing the surface of TiO2. The ethanol supercritical treatment also contributed mesoporous structure with large surface area (160 m2/g) and high crystallinity of anatase to the C-TiO2. These materials exhibited an excellent photocatalytic performance and recyclability for phenol oxidation under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The C-TiO2 samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), Raman and ultraviolet–visible reflectance (UV–vis) spectroscopy. The relationship between the physicochemical property and the photocatalytic performance of the as prepared samples is discussed. We also investigate the effect of the supercritical temperature and calcining temperature on the photocatalytic performance of the obtained C-TiO2. The present work explores an effective supercritical fluid based route for the fabrication of mesoporous C-TiO2 with bimodal carbon modification effect and high photocatalytic performance for treating phenol, which can be extended to synthesize other functional photocatalytic materials.
Graphical abstractThe bimodal carbon modified mesoporous TiO2 prepared via ethanol supercritical route exhibited an excellent photocatalytic performance for degrading phenol, owing to its strong visible light absorption capability and high electron–hole separation rate.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideHighlights► An effective supercritical fluid based route for fabricating bimodal carbon modified TiO2. ► Mesoporous structure with large surface area and high crystallinity. ► High photocatalytic performance and stability for degrading phenol under visible light. ► Elucidate the activity contribution from the various carbon modification modals.
Journal: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental - Volumes 115–116, 5 April 2012, Pages 236–244