Hydrogen from ethanol solution under UV–visible light. Photocatalysts produced by nitriding titanium nitride and indium oxide intimate mixtures to form Ti–In nitride composites
Photocatalytic production of hydrogen gas from 20% ethanol–water was accomplished with Ti–In nitride composites. These materials were produced by nitriding a TiO2 with ammonia at a high temperature, then adding In2O3 and further ammonolysis for different periods of time. The catalysts were very stable and continued to produce H2 gas at 920 μmol h−1 g−1 for 50 h and accumulated 12.8 mmol H2 gas. The water splitting photocatalytic reaction can be driven by UV–vis light, maximum producing H2 gas at 1277 μmol h−1 g−1. It is critical that we understand how having high, stable activity is possible. We used XPS, X-ray (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrometry, and BET surface area and pore size distribution for further characterization.
Graphical abstract. Schematic representation showing the particle size, different crystal sizes of compounds and the ratio of compounds for the composite.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideHighlights► TiN–In nitride composite of TiN and InN was prepared by nitridation of TiO2 first, then mixed with In2O3 and ammonolysis again under a NH3 flow of 250 mL min−1. ► The TiN–In nitride composite can stably generate H2 gas maximum at 1277 μmol h−1 g−1 (∼13% quantum efficiency) in the ethanol aqueous solution under UV light. ► The XRD and XPS spectra confirmed that the prepared TiN–In nitride composite had nitrogen substituted at some of the oxygen sites in the TiO2 and In2O3.
Journal: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental - Volume 104, Issues 3–4, 18 May 2011, Pages 245–251