Visible-light-induced photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria by composite photocatalysts of palladium oxide and nitrogen-doped titanium oxide
Composite photocatalysts of palladium oxide and nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (PdO/TiON) were synthesized by a sol–gel process, as convenient forms of nanopowder or immobilized powder on nanofiber. The PdO/TiON catalysts were tested for visible-light-activated photocatalysis using different bacterial indicators, including gram-negative cells of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and gram-positive cells of Staphylococcus aureus. Disinfection data indicated that PdO/TiON composite photocatalysts have a much better photocatalytic activity than either palladium-doped (PdO/TiO2) or nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (TiON) under visible-light illumination. The roles of Pd and N were discussed in terms of the production and separation of the charge carriers under visible-light illumination. The photocatalytic activity was thus dependent on dopants and light intensity. Microscopic characterization demonstrated that visible-light photocatalysis on PdO/TiON caused drastic damage on the bacteria cell wall and the cell membrane.
Journal: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental - Volume 88, Issues 3–4, 20 May 2009, Pages 576–581