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Microwave-assisted reduction of levulinic acid with alcohols producing γ-valerolactone in the presence of a Ru/C catalyst

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
49219 46724 2016 4 PDF Available
Title
Microwave-assisted reduction of levulinic acid with alcohols producing γ-valerolactone in the presence of a Ru/C catalyst
Abstract

•Ru catalyses reduction of levulinic acid with secondary alcohols to γ-valerolactone.•Reaction rate increases under microwave irradiation compared to conventional heating.•i-Propanol and 2-butanol are the best reductants for levulinic acid and its esters.•The dehydrogenation–hydrogenation mechanism with Ru0 active species was proposed.•Ru/C exhibited stability upon recycling.

γ-Valerolactone can be synthesized by reduction of levulinic acid and its esters in the presence of secondary alcohols as hydrogen donors and Ru/C as catalyst. The reaction rate increases when using microwave heating. Quantitative formation of γ-valerolactone was observed within 25 min at 160 °C under microwave heating based on levulinic acid and i-propanol. The reaction appears to proceed via a dehydrogenation–hydrogenation sequence.

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Keywords
Microwave; Hydrogenation; γ-Valerolactone; Levulinic acid; Alkyl levulinates; Ruthenium
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Microwave-assisted reduction of levulinic acid with alcohols producing γ-valerolactone in the presence of a Ru/C catalyst
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Catalysis Communications - Volume 75, 5 February 2016, Pages 65–68
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
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