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Catalytic upgrading of levulinic acid to ethyl levulinate using reusable silica-included Wells-Dawson heteropolyacid as catalyst

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
50093 46779 2012 6 PDF Available
Title
Catalytic upgrading of levulinic acid to ethyl levulinate using reusable silica-included Wells-Dawson heteropolyacid as catalyst
Abstract

In this paper we report, for the first time, the direct incorporation of a heteropolyacid (HPA) with Wells-Dawson structure during the synthesis of silica by the sol–gel technique, in acidic media, using tetraethyl orthosilicate. The catalyst characterization was carried out by 31P MAS-NMR, FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption–desorption measurements, and the acidic properties were determined through potentiometric titration with n-butylamine. The synthesized catalysts were used in the esterification of levulinic acid with ethanol, at 78 °C, to obtain ethyl levulinate. The synthesis of silica-included HPAs was satisfactory, and the samples kept their HPA structure intact after synthesis. The catalytic tests for the esterification reaction between levulinic acid and ethanol to produce ethyl levulinate have shown that the silica-included Wells-Dawson HPA is an active and selective catalyst for this reaction. It must be noted that silica-included HPAs also kept their structure and catalytic activity after three consecutive reaction cycles. These results indicated that these solid acids are promissory catalysts for the esterification reaction of levulinic acid and ethanol to ethyl levulinate.

Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideHighlights► Direct incorporation of Wells-Dawson heteropolyacid in silica by sol-gel. ► Upgrading of levulinic acid using silica included Wells-Dawson structure as catalyst. ► Well-Dawson heteropolyacid as re-usable heterogeneous catalyst in polar media.

Keywords
Ethyl levulinate production; Wells-Dawson heteropolyacid incorporated in silica; Upgrading of levulinic acid; Heterogeneous catalysis
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Catalytic upgrading of levulinic acid to ethyl levulinate using reusable silica-included Wells-Dawson heteropolyacid as catalyst
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Catalysis Communications - Volume 18, 10 February 2012, Pages 115–120
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us