Interactions of U937 macrophage-like cells with decellularized pericardial matrix materials: Influence of crosslinking treatment
While macrophages have been implicated in the failure of bioprosthetic heart valves, the macrophage response to crosslinked native pericardial collagen has not been previously investigated. Using decellularized bovine pericardium (DBP) as a model for native collagen, this study investigated the response of macrophage-like cells (U937s) to DBP, either: (i) untreated, or (ii) exogenously crosslinked with glutaraldehyde or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC). We have previously validated the use of U937 cells as models for the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages to decellularized pericardial materials and, per our previous work, differentiated the U937 cells directly on the three material surfaces. After 72 h in culture, the cells and medium were analyzed for DNA content, acid phosphatase activity, and cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase release. As well, cell/substrate samples were fixed for SEM. Fewer cells attached to or survived on the glutaraldehyde-treated substrate, and some showed an abnormal morphology compared to cells cultured on the other surfaces. Further, cells on glutaraldehyde-treated surfaces released more pro-inflammatory cytokines, more MMP-1 and less MMP-2 and MMP-9. The poor performance of the U937 macrophage-like cells on the glutaraldehyde-treated surfaces appears to be due to surface characteristics rather than to soluble aldehyde or other components leaching from the crosslinked material. These results provide evidence that crosslinking with glutaraldehyde is cytotoxic to macrophage-like cells, and that crosslinking with a zero-length crosslinker like EDC can be an acceptable alternative crosslinking treatment for biomaterials.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 9, Issue 7, July 2013, Pages 7191–7199