Unique vapor phase synthesis of 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydrodicyclopenta[b,e]pyridine selectively over Co–Al-MCM-41
Cyclization of cyclopentanone, formaldehyde and ammonia in vapor phase gives 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydrodicyclopenta[b,e]pyridine (HHDCP) and spiro[cyclopentane-1,8′-(1′,2′,3′,5′,6′,7′,8′,8′a) octahydrodicyclopenta[b,e]]pyridine (SCOHDCP) over zeolites HY, HZSM-5, Hβ and mesoporous Al-MCM-41 molecular sieves. The preliminary screening of catalysts clearly shows that Al-MCM-41 is more suitable for the vapor phase synthesis of HHDCP. As the NH3-TPD profiles of Al-MCM-41 show wide range distribution of acid sites in the temperature range of 200–600 °C (weak–medium–strong), Al-MCM-41 is further modified with transition metal ions like V(V), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(III), Cu(II), La(III) and Ce(III) to fine tune the acid sites. Correlation of activity and selectivity of transition metal modified Al-MCM-41 with the NH3-TPD profiles show that though the conversions are high, selectivity of either HHDCP or SCOHDCP is a preference of acid site strength formed on metal ion modification. Interestingly Co2+ ion modification of Al-MCM-41 resulted distinctly into two sets of acid sites with Tmax around 218 °C (weak–medium) and 673 °C (strong). The reaction is studied on Co–Al-MCM-41 by adsorbing pyridine at 300 °C. The typical acidity available on pyridine adsorbed Co–Al-MCM-41 around 300 °C is showing cyclization activity forming only HHDCP indicating that weak–medium acid sites are responsible for the formation of HHDCP. Based on the product distribution plausible reaction mechanism is proposed.
Journal: Catalysis Communications - Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 267–274