Passive SCR for lean gasoline NOX control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH3 generation ☆
•Air-fuel equivalence ratio impacts both NH3 selectivity and fuel penalty.•Fuel penalty reduced with increased engine-out NOX via spark timing and EGR.•Engine acceleration increases NOX and reduces fuel penalty.•Fuel consumption benefits of 10% are achieved.
Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than common stoichiometric gasoline engines. However, excess oxygen prevents the use of the current three-way catalyst (TWC) to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in lean exhaust. A passive SCR concept, introduced by General Motors Global R&D, makes use of a TWC that is already onboard to generate NH3 under slightly rich conditions, which is stored on the downstream SCR. The stored NH3 is then used to reduce NOX emissions when the engine switches to lean operation. In this work, the effect of engine parameters, such as air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing, on NH3 generation over a commercial Pd-only TWC with no dedicated oxygen storage component was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine. NOX reduction, NH3 formation, and reductant utilization processes were evaluated, and fuel efficiency was assessed and compared to the stoichiometric engine operation case. Air-fuel equivalence ratio was found to be one of the most important parameters in controlling the NH3 production; however, the rich operation necessary for NH3 production results in a fuel consumption penalty. The fuel penalty can be minimized by adjusting spark timing to increase rich-phase engine out NOX emissions and, thereby, NH3 levels. Additionally, higher engine out NOX during engine load increase to simulate acceleration resulted in additional fuel savings. A 10% fuel consumption benefit was achieved with the passive SCR approach by optimizing rich air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing while also utilizing acceleration load conditions.
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Journal: Catalysis Today - Volume 267, 1 June 2016, Pages 202–209