Efficient dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over sulfonated carbon sphere solid acid catalysts
•Sulfonated carbon as synthesized by a modified two-step method under mild condition.•Spherical shape was preserved which is independent of sulfonation solution concentration.•This carbon-based solid acid showed excellent activity in fructose dehydration to HMF.•90% HMF yield was obtained at 160 °C after 1.5 h reaction time duration.
A carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared via hydrothermal method using glucose as carbon precursors and aqueous solution of H2SO4 as sulfonation agent. The as-synthesized solid acid catalyst was attempted in the catalytic dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The effects of acid site density, reaction time, solvents, catalyst amount, temperature and mole ratio of catalyst to substrate were investigated. Under the optimum reaction conditions, the HMF yield of 90% was achieved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent at 160 °C after 1.5 h reaction time duration. The solid acid catalyst can be separated from the reaction mixture after reaction and reused without substantial loss in catalytic activity.
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Journal: Catalysis Today - Volume 264, 15 April 2016, Pages 123–130