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Carbon and metal deposition during the hydroprocessing of Maya crude oil

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
54393 47008 2014 9 PDF Available
Title
Carbon and metal deposition during the hydroprocessing of Maya crude oil
Abstract

•Metal and coke deposition leads to hydroprocessing catalyst deactivation.•Deactivation during HDT is a function of metal and carbon deposition with TOS.•V deposit at the edges of catalyst while Ni diffuse deep into the pores.•Catalyst deactivation decreases the life of the catalyst and generate industrial waste.

During the heavy oil hydroprocessing, a decrease in catalytic activity with time-on-stream (TOS), is due to the metal and carbon deposition on the catalysts. In this investigation, spent catalysts were obtained from the Maya heavy crude hydrotreating unit, as the processing conditions were close to the industrial practice. The catalysts were unloaded after considerable activity decrease, considering the initial activity as base activity. The spent catalysts were characterized by pore size distribution, SEM-EDS, TEM and 13C solid state NMR. Results indicate that catalysts were deactivated mainly due to the deposition of metal and carbon. The sources of deactivation were identified along with the location of foreign species by analyzing the deposited species on the spent catalysts. The nature of the coke and its compositions were derived from 13C CP/MAS and CP/MAS with dipolar dephasing NMR experiments. The wide range of analysis of spent catalysts specify that the catalyst pores were plugged during the heavy oil processing. The deactivation of catalysts were not only due to the carbon deposition but also due to the deposited metal sulfide (VxSy, NixSy) over the existing (CoMoS) active sites. It appear from the results that considerable amount of deactivation is irreversible and non-regeneratable (i.e., metal deposition). Hence catalyst deactivation during heavy oil hydrotreating (HDT) is a function of metal and carbon deposition during time-on-stream. The metal deposition on spent catalysts, e.g. vanadium is on the surface, while Ni distributed deeper into the pore of the catalysts. The removal of Ni and V showed different behavior, which was attributed to an oxygen atom presence to vanadium and its influence on the vanadium porphyrin structure.

Keywords
Hydroprocessing; Heavy oil; Residue; Deactivation; Coke and metal deposition
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Catalysis Today - Volumes 220–222, March 2014, Pages 97–105
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us