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Carbon as a catalyst: Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
54749 47025 2013 6 PDF Available
Title
Carbon as a catalyst: Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol
Abstract

•Carbon xerogels and nanotubes were functionalized with sulphonic or carboxylic acid groups.•These samples were used as catalysts in the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol.•Sulphonic groups are more adequate than carboxylic acids for this reaction.•A strong correlation was observed between the rate of ethyl acetate formation and the surface concentration of SO3H.

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon xerogels prepared by the sol–gel process (CXs) were modified by different chemical and thermal treatments with sulphuric and nitric acid in order to produce materials with different textural properties and acidic nature. The presence of sulphonic acid groups was identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the sulphuric acid treated samples. Carboxylic acids and anhydrides, phenol groups, some lactones and carbonyl-quinone groups were incorporated during the nitric acid treatment, as shown by temperature programmed desorption. Oxidation with nitric acid affects more the textural properties (the effect is more pronounced in the case of CNTs than in CXs) promoting an increase of surface area and a decrease of total pore volume, while a decrease of surface area was observed with the sulphuric acid treatment. The prepared materials were tested in the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol as a model acid-catalyzed reaction. The rate of formation of ethyl acetate was found to depend strongly on the chemical properties of the carbon materials, the presence of sulphonic acid groups being more adequate for this reaction. A good correlation was obtained between the rate of formation of ethyl acetate and the concentration of sulphonic groups.

Graphical abstractEthyl acetate formation over carbon xerogels containing sulphonic groups.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (74 K)Download as PowerPoint slide

Keywords
Carbon nanotubes; Carbon xerogels; Sulphonic acid groups; Carbon catalyst; Esterification; Acetic acid
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Catalysis Today - Volumes 218–219, December 2013, Pages 51–56
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us