fulltext.study @t Gmail

Electrolysis of urea and urine for solar hydrogen

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
54978 47035 2013 6 PDF Available
Title
Electrolysis of urea and urine for solar hydrogen
Abstract

Hybrid photovoltaic (PV) arrays-electrochemical systems have been envisaged as an alternative technology that co-manages an energy–water nexus, yet improving the technical viability and applicability of the hybrids remains a challenge. With this in mind, we studied the hybrid electrochemical system for urea and urine treatment and simultaneous H2 production using BiOx–TiO2 anode and stainless steel cathode couples with different electrolytes (NaCl vs. LiClO4 vs. Na2SO4). In the presence of NaCl, urea electrolysis was found to enhance the cathodic H2 production by a maximum of ca. 20% at low urea concentrations, yet reduce the H2 production at high urea concentrations as compared to water electrolysis. Varying degrees of the synergistic H2 production were attributed to competitive reactions between active chlorine species and urea/urea intermediates for protons and electrons. The synergistic effect by the urea electrolysis disappeared when LiClO4 and Na2SO4 were used as electrolytes indicating the crucial role of chlorine species in the hybrid reactions. In addition, the electrolysis of actual urine was found to successfully operate along with simultaneous generation of H2 even in the absence of externally added electrolytes. This electrolyteless-hybrid electrolysis resulted from the large amounts of chloride and other ionic species originally included in the actual urine sample. A detailed reaction mechanism of urea electrolysis and its application potential in terms of solar hydrogen were discussed.

Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (88 K)Download as PowerPoint slideHighlights► Hybrid photovoltaic-urine electrolysis is demonstrated technically viable. ► Urine electrolysis and simultaneous H2 production is achieved without electrolytes. ► Electrolysis of urea enhances the H2 production by maximum 20%. ► The synergy for H2 production depends on the urea concentration and electrolytes. ► Chloride contained in urine plays a crucial role in the synergy and electrolysis.

Keywords
Solar hydrogen; Electrolysis; Hybrid; Water treatment; Energy–water nexus
First Page Preview
Electrolysis of urea and urine for solar hydrogen
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us
Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Catalysis Today - Volume 199, 1 January 2013, Pages 2–7
Authors
, , , , ,
Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us