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Zr-SBA-15 acid catalyst: Optimization of the synthesis and reaction conditions for biodiesel production from low-grade oils and fats

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
55128 47041 2012 10 PDF Available
Title
Zr-SBA-15 acid catalyst: Optimization of the synthesis and reaction conditions for biodiesel production from low-grade oils and fats
Abstract

The production of biodiesel by methanolysis of highly acidic crude palm oil has been optimized for the Zr-SBA-15 heterogeneous acid catalyst. A dual optimization procedure has been carried out using surface response methodology and selecting the yield towards fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as main response factor. Selected target variables for the optimization were: acidity of the synthesis media, zirconium loading, ageing temperature (all three for the synthesis of the catalyst); and temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst loading (for the reaction tests). Quadratic equations were obtained for both models and their statistical analysis led to the optimal conditions for Zr-SBA-15 synthesis (0.67 N HCl media concentration, 130 °C ageing temperature, 10 Si/Zr molar ratio), and for the transesterification reaction conditions (209 °C, 12.45 wt% catalyst loading, 45.8 methanol to oil molar ratio). Under these optimized conditions FAME yield reached 92 mol% after 6 h. Additionally, reusability tests revealed that the optimized Zr-SBA-15 catalyst displays an excellent reaction stability, being fully regenerated after calcination at 450 °C. Moreover, the high catalytic activity and stability achieved with crude palm oil is retained when using waste cooking oil (WCO) or low-grade fats such as category-1 fat, waste lard and mixed fats, leading to FAME yields over 90% after 6 h, for each raw material, and with acidities in the final product lower than 2.5 mg KOH per gram.

Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (338 K)Download as PowerPoint slideHighlights► Zr-SBA-15 acid catalyst is an active and robust catalyst for biodiesel production. ► High FAME yields with low grade oils and fats. ► Zr-SBA-15 is not affected by usual oil and fat impurities. ► Catalyst recovers completely the activity after calcination in air.

Keywords
FAME; Biodiesel; Zr-SBA-15; Transesterification; Surface response analysis; Low-grade oils and fats
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Zr-SBA-15 acid catalyst: Optimization of the synthesis and reaction conditions for biodiesel production from low-grade oils and fats
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Catalysis Today - Volume 195, Issue 1, 15 November 2012, Pages 44–53
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Catalysis
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us