Impact of macrophage deficiency and depletion on continuous glucose monitoring in vivo
Although it is assumed that macrophages (MQ) have a major negative impact on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), surprisingly there is no data in the literature to directly support or refute the role of MQ or related foreign body giant cells in the bio-fouling of glucose sensors in vivo. As such, we developed the hypothesis that MQ are key in controlling glucose sensor performance and CGM in vivo and MQ deficiencies or depletion would enhance CGM. To test this hypothesis we determined the presence/distribution of MQ at the sensor tissue interface over a 28-day time period using F4/80 antibody and immunohistochemical analysis. We also evaluated the impact of spontaneous MQ deficiency (op/op mice) and induced-transgenic MQ depletions (Diphtheria Toxin Receptor (DTR) mice) on sensor function and CGM utilizing our murine CGM system. The results of these studies demonstrated: 1) a time dependent increase in MQ accumulation (F4/80 positive cells) at the sensor tissue interface; and 2) MQ deficient mice and MQ depleted C57BL/6 mice demonstrated improved sensor performance (MARD) when compared to normal mice (C57BL/6). These studies directly demonstrate the importance of MQ in sensor function and CGM in vivo.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 35, Issue 6, February 2014, Pages 1789–1796