The impact of heat treatment on interactions of contact-poled biphasic calcium phosphates with proteins and cells
A number of studies have reported improved bone integration for calcium phosphate based materials electrically “poled” by an external electric field prior to implantation. In our study we investigated the effects of electrical polarization of a biphasic ceramic composed of 80% hydroxyapatite and 20% β-tricalcium phosphate. As contact poling involves elevated temperatures as a prerequisite for inducing charge, we used two reference types: samples without any heat treatment and poling, and samples with no poling but heat treatment identical to that of the poled samples. All heat-treated samples (poled or unpoled) showed an improved wettability, which was attributed to a reduced hydrocarbon contamination. Heat treatment alone provoked an accelerated spreading of osteoblast-like cells, whereas on poled samples a retarded cell spreading was observed. While proliferation and several differentiation markers were not influenced by either heat treatment or poling, the release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and -8 was significantly reduced for all heat-treated samples, irrespective of additional electrical poling. The study demonstrated that the behaviour of cells in contact with poled biphasic ceramics was influenced by two parameters: heating and charge. Our data revealed that heating of the calcium phosphate ceramics had a much more pronounced effect on cell behaviour than charge.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2012, Pages 3468–3477