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Simultaneous induction of autophagy and toll-like receptor signaling pathways by graphene oxide

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
6582 501 2012 11 PDF Available
Title
Simultaneous induction of autophagy and toll-like receptor signaling pathways by graphene oxide
Abstract

Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have sparked growing interests in biological and medical applications. This study examined how macrophage, the primary immune cell type engaging microbes, responded to GO treatment. We uncovered that incubation of macrophage cell RAW264.7 with GO elicited autophagy in a concentration-dependent manner, as evidenced by the appearance of autophagic vacuoles and activation of autophagic marker proteins. Such GO-induced autophagy was observed in various cell lines and in macrophage treated with GO of different sizes. Strikingly, GO treatment of macrophage provoked the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling cascades and triggered ensuing cytokine responses. Molecular analysis identified that TLR4 and TLR9 and their downstream signaling mediators MyD88, TRAF6 and NF-κB played pivotal roles in the GO-induced inflammatory responses. By silencing individual genes in the signaling pathway, we further unveiled that the GO-induced autophagy was modulated by TLR4, TLR9 and was dependent on downstream adaptor proteins MyD88, TRIF and TRAF6. Altogether, we demonstrated that GO treatment of cells simultaneously triggers autophagy and TLR4/TLR9-regulated inflammatory responses, and the autophagy was at least partly regulated by the TLRs pathway. This study thus suggests a mechanism by which cells respond to nanomaterials and underscores the importance of future safety evaluation of nanomaterials.

Keywords
Autophagy; Graphene oxide; Nanomaterials; Toll-like receptor; Signal transduction
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Simultaneous induction of autophagy and toll-like receptor signaling pathways by graphene oxide
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 33, Issue 27, September 2012, Pages 6559–6569
Authors
, , , , , , , , , , ,
Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us