The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of silver nanoparticles on inflammatory and stress genes in human macrophages using cDNA microarray analysis
Because of the limited information on size-dependent particle-mediated effects, the present study was conducted to determine if the changes in induced protein expression between 5 nm silver nanoparticles and 100 nm particles after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations. A total of 28,000 cDNA profiles were screened using 5 nm silver nanoparticles and 100 nm silver nanoparticles in a macrophage cell line. Based on results obtained from cDNA microarray we also assessed protein levels of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), which were shown to significantly increase. Together with results obtained using N-acetylcystein (NAC), we were able to clearly show that low level and early stage exposure to 5 nm silver nanoparticles, but not 100 nm, induces expression of IL-8 as well as stress genes against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, we provide important data to understand and identify the early effects of silver nanoparticles on the immune system.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 33, Issue 18, June 2012, Pages 4690–4699