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The induction of cytokines by polycation containing microspheres by a complement dependent mechanism

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
6839 522 2013 10 PDF Available
Title
The induction of cytokines by polycation containing microspheres by a complement dependent mechanism
Abstract

The cytokine-inducing potential of various microspheres were evaluated in a short-time screening assay of lepirudin-anticoagulated human whole blood utilizing the Bio-Plex Human cytokine 27-plex system. The inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF and IL-6; the anti-inflammatory mediators IL-1ra and IL-10; the chemokines IL-8, MIP-1α and MCP-1; and the growth factor VEGF were induced by polycation (poly-l-lysine or poly(methylene-co-guanidine)) containing microspheres. Alginate microspheres without polycations did not induce the corresponding cytokine panel, nor did soluble alginate. By inhibiting complement C3 using compstatin analog CP20, a total inhibition of complement activation as well as the inflammatory mediators was achieved, indicating that complement activation alone was responsible for the induced cytokines. A strong deposition of C3c on the poly-l-lysine containing surface, while not on the microspheres lacking polycations, also points to the formation of C3 convertase as involved in the biomaterial-induced cytokine induction. These results show that complement is responsible for the induction of cytokines by polycation containing microspheres. We point to complement as an important initiator of inflammatory responses to biomaterials and the lepirudin anticoagulated whole blood assay as an important tool to identify the most tolerable and safe materials for implantation to humans.

Keywords
Biomaterial; Inflammation; Complement; Biocompatibility; Microspheres; Alginate
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The induction of cytokines by polycation containing microspheres by a complement dependent mechanism
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 34, Issue 3, January 2013, Pages 621–630
Authors
, , , , , , , , , , ,
Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us