Selective photodynamic therapy based on aggregation-induced emission enhancement of fluorescent organic nanoparticles
Three binary molecule conjugates were designed and synthesized by conjugating a chromophore (3, 6-bis-(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium)-carbazole diiodide, BMVC) to mono-, bis- and trishydroxyl photosensitizers, respectively. BMVC plays the role of cancer cells recognizer; AIEE (aggregation-induced emission enhancement) generator and FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) donor. The self assembling properties of these binary conjugates result in different degrees of AIEE and then achieve the formations of FONs (fluorescent organic nanoparticles), which present efficient FRET and singlet oxygen generations. Biologically, FONs-photosensitizers from these compounds were much more phototoxicities to cancer cell than to normal cell without significant dark toxicity. In addition, their intracellular fluorescent colors switching upon photo-excitation are expected to be used for further cell death biomarker applications. This improved photodynamic activity might be due to the aggregation of compounds in the cell that form FONs which can promote PDT (photodynamic therapy) and are observed in cancer cell but not normal cell.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 33, Issue 3, January 2012, Pages 897–906