In vitro and in vivo studies on a Mg–Sr binary alloy system developed as a new kind of biodegradable metal
Magnesium alloys have shown potential as biodegradable metallic materials for orthopedic applications due to their degradability, resemblance to cortical bone and biocompatible degradation/corrosion products. However, the fast corrosion rate and the potential toxicity of their alloying element limit the clinical application of Mg alloys. From the viewpoint of both metallurgy and biocompatibility, strontium (Sr) was selected to prepare hot rolled Mg–Sr binary alloys (with a Sr content ranging from 1 to 4 wt.%) in the present study. The optimal Sr content was screened with respect to the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg–Sr binary alloys and the feasibility of the use of Mg–Sr alloys as orthopedic biodegradable metals was investigated by in vitro cell experiments and intramedullary implantation tests. The mechanical properties and corrosion rates of Mg–Sr alloys were dose dependent with respect to the added Sr content. The as-rolled Mg–2Sr alloy exhibited the highest strength and slowest corrosion rate, suggesting that the optimal Sr content was 2 wt.%. The as-rolled Mg–2Sr alloy showed Grade I cytotoxicity and induced higher alkaline phosphatase activity than the other alloys. During the 4 weeks implantation period we saw gradual degradation of the as-rolled Mg–2Sr alloy within a bone tunnel. Micro-computer tomography and histological analysis showed an enhanced mineral density and thicker cortical bone around the experimental implants. Higher levels of Sr were observed in newly formed peri-implant bone compared with the control. In summary, this study shows that the optimal content of added Sr is 2 wt.% for binary Mg–Sr alloys in the rolled state and that the as-rolled Mg–2Sr alloy in vivo produces an acceptable host response.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 8, Issue 6, July 2012, Pages 2360–2374