Vitamin E TPGS as a molecular biomaterial for drug delivery
d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (Vitamin E TPGS, or simply TPGS) is a water-soluble derivative of natural Vitamin E, which is formed by esterification of Vitamin E succinate with polyethylene glycol (PEG). As such, it has advantages of PEG and Vitamin E in application of various nanocarriers for drug delivery, including extending the half-life of the drug in plasma and enhancing the cellular uptake of the drug. TPGS has an amphiphilic structure of lipophilic alkyl tail and hydrophilic polar head with a hydrophile/lipophile balance (HLB) value of 13.2 and a relatively low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.02% w/w, which make it to be an ideal molecular biomaterial in developing various drug delivery systems, including prodrugs, micelles, liposomes and nanoparticles, which would be able to realize sustained, controlled and targeted drug delivery as well as to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) and to promote oral drug delivery as an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In this review, we briefly discuss its physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties and its wide applications in composition of the various nanocarriers for drug delivery, which we call TPGS-based drug delivery systems.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 33, Issue 19, June 2012, Pages 4889–4906