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The triggering of apoptosis in macrophages by pristine graphene through the MAPK and TGF-beta signaling pathways

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
7606 558 2012 10 PDF Available
Title
The triggering of apoptosis in macrophages by pristine graphene through the MAPK and TGF-beta signaling pathways
Abstract

With the development of nanotechnology and the wide use of graphene, it has become necessary to assess the potential biological adverse effects of graphene. However, most of the recent publications are focused on various modified graphenes. We demonstrated biological effects of commercial pristine graphene in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, which is an important effector cells of the innate immune system. We found that the pristine graphene can induce cytotoxicity through the depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), then trigger apoptosis by activation of the mitochondrial pathway. The MAPKs (JNK, ERK and p38) as well as the TGF-beta-related signaling pathways were found to be activated in the pristine grapheme-treated cells, which activated Bim and Bax, two pro-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 protein family. Consequently, the caspase 3 and its downstream effector proteins such as PARP were activated and the execution of apoptosis was initiated. This study provides an insight for the suppression of the apoptosis induced by the graphene through the mitochondrial pathways, the MAPKs- and TGF-beta-related signaling pathways.

Keywords
Graphene; Apoptosis; Macrophage; Mitogen activated protein kinase; TGF-beta
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The triggering of apoptosis in macrophages by pristine graphene through the MAPK and TGF-beta signaling pathways
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 33, Issue 2, January 2012, Pages 402–411
Authors
, , , , , , , , ,
Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us