In vivo bone augmentation in an osteoporotic environment using bisphosphonate-loaded calcium deficient apatite
Resorbable calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials have demonstrated considerable efficacy in bone reconstructive surgery. Furthermore, bisphosphonates (BPs) are well known anti-resorptive agents largely used in clinical treatments for osteoporosis. An injectable BP-combined CaP matrix has been developed in order to biologically reinforce osteoporotic bone by increasing the bone fraction and improving bone micro-architecture. Our previous in vitro studies have shown that CaP is effective for loading and releasing BPs at doses that can inhibit excessive bone resorption without affecting osteoblasts. In vivo studies in relevant animal models are necessary to explore the effect of our injectable BP-combined biomaterial on femur bone structure by performing three-dimensional microtomography analysis, histological studies and SEM observations. Firstly, in rat model, our BP-combined CaP matrix significantly improved the bone micro-architecture as compared to CaP alone. The implantation of the BP-loaded biomaterial within proximal femurs of osteoporotic ewes led to a significant increase in relative bone content and an improvement of its micro-architecture. These modifications were confirmed by histological and SEM observations, which revealed CaP granule resorption and new bone trabeculae formation. This approach could be considered in the future for preventing osteoporotic fractures that are preferentially localized in the proximal femur, vertebral bodies or wrist.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 30, October 2010, Pages 7776–7784