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Modulation of the immune-related gene responses to protect mice against Japanese encephalitis virus using the antimicrobial peptide, tilapia hepcidin 1-5

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
7799 564 2011 11 PDF Available
Title
Modulation of the immune-related gene responses to protect mice against Japanese encephalitis virus using the antimicrobial peptide, tilapia hepcidin 1-5
Abstract

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a neurotropic flavivirus, is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans. After infection, it is commonly associated with inflammatory reactions and neurological disease. There is still no effective antiviral drug available against Japanese encephalitis virus infection. Recently, a number of investigators found that antimicrobial peptide (AMPs) present a broad range of biological activities including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we found that an AMP, tilapia hepcidin (TH)1-5, caused no harm to either cells or test animals during the test course and could control JEV viral infection in BHK-21 cells. Mice co-injected with TH1-5/JEV and subsequently subjected to JEV re-challenge survived and behaved normally. The neuroprotective effects were associated with marked decreases in: (i) the viral load and viral replication within the brain, (ii) neuronal death, and (iii) secondary inflammation resulting from microglial activation. TH1-5 was also determined to enhance adaptive immunity by elevating levels of anti-JEV-neutralizing antibodies in the serum. The microarray data also showed that TH1-5 modulated Socs-6, interleukin (IL)-6, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1, TLR-7, caspase-4, interferon (IFN)-β1, ATF-3, and several immune-responsive genes to protect mice against JEV infection. In addition, TH1-5 was confirmed to modulate the expressions of several proinflammatory and immune-responsive genes, such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IFN-γ and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 at both the transcriptional and translational levels in JEV-infected mice. In conclusion, our findings provide mechanistic insights into the actions of TH1-5 against JEV. Results from our in vivo and in vitro experiments clearly indicate that TH1-5 has antiviral, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, TH1-5 successfully reduced the severity of disease induced by JEV. Our results point out that TH1-5 is a promising candidate for further development as an antiviral agent against JEV infection.

Keywords
Tilapia hepcidin 1-5; Antimicrobial peptides; Japanese encephalitis virus; Antiviral agent; Proinflammatory genes
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Modulation of the immune-related gene responses to protect mice against Japanese encephalitis virus using the antimicrobial peptide, tilapia hepcidin 1-5
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 32, Issue 28, October 2011, Pages 6804–6814
Authors
, , , , , , ,
Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us