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Fatigue and biocompatibility properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
790 63 2012 12 PDF Available
Title
Fatigue and biocompatibility properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes
Abstract

Composites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) of varied functionality (unfunctionalised and carboxyl and amine functionalised) with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were prepared for use as a bone cement. The MWCNT loadings ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 wt.%. The fatigue properties of these MWCNT–PMMA bone cements were characterised at MWCNT loading levels of 0.1 and 0.25 wt.% with the type and wt.% loading of MWCNT used having a strong influence on the number of cycles to failure. The morphology and degree of dispersion of the MWCNT in the PMMA matrix at different length scales were examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy. Improvements in the fatigue properties were attributed to the MWCNT arresting/retarding crack propagation through the cement through a bridging effect and hindering crack propagation. MWCNT agglomerates were evident within the cement microstructure and the degree of agglomeration was dependent on the level of loading and functionality of the MWCNT. The biocompatibility of the MWCNT–PMMA cements at MWCNT loading levels upto 1.0 wt.% was determined by means of established biological cell culture assays using MG-63 cells. Cell attachment after 4 h was determined using the crystal violet staining assay. Cell viability was determined over 7 days in vitro using the standard colorimetric MTT assay. Confocal scanning laser microscopy and SEM analysis was also used to assess cell morphology on the various substrates.

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Keywords
PMMA bone cement; Multi-walled carbon nanotubes; Chemical functionality; Fatigue properties; Biocompatibility
First Page Preview
Fatigue and biocompatibility properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes
Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2012, Pages 1201–1212
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering