Differentiation of pre-osteoblast cells on poly(ethylene terephthalate) grafted with RGD and/or BMPs mimetic peptides
The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are cytokines of the transforming growth factor beta family. Some BMPs such as BMP-2, BMP-7 and BMP-9 play a major role in the bone and cartilage formation. The BMP peptides corresponding to residues 73–92, 89–117, and 68–87 of BMP-2, BMP-7 and BMP-9 respectively as well as adhesion peptides (GRGDSPC) were grafted onto polyethylene terephthatalate (PET) surfaces. We evaluated the state of differentiation of pre-osteoblastic cells. The behavior of these cells on various functionalized surfaces highlighted the activity of the mimetic peptides immobilized on surfaces. The induced cells (observed in the case of surfaces grafted with BMP-2, 7 or 9 mimetic peptides and GRGDSPC peptides) were characterized on several levels. First of all, we focused on the evaluation of the osteoblastic markers such as the transcriptional factor Runx2, which is a critical regulator of osteoblastic differentiation. Secondly, the results obtained showed that these induced cells take a different morphology compared to the cells in a state of proliferation or in a state of extracellular matrix production. Induced cells were characterized by an increased thickness compared to non-induced cells. Thus, our studies prove a direct correlation between cell morphology and state of induction. Thereafter, we focused on characterizing the extracellular matrix formed by the cells on various surfaces. The extracellular matrix thickness was more significant in the case of surfaces grafted with mimetic peptides of the BMP-2, 7 or 9 and GRGDSPC peptides which once again proves their activity when immobilized on material surface. These results demonstrate that GRGDSPC and BMPs peptides, grafted to PET surface, act to enhance osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblastic cells. These findings are potentially useful in developing engineered biomaterials for bone regeneration.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 32, November 2010, Pages 8245–8253