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The stimulation of the cardiac differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in tissue constructs that mimic myocardium structure and biomechanics

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
8072 576 2011 13 PDF Available
Title
The stimulation of the cardiac differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in tissue constructs that mimic myocardium structure and biomechanics
Abstract

We investigated whether tissue constructs resembling structural and mechanical properties of the myocardium would induce mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into a cardiac lineage, and whether further mimicking the 3-D cell alignment of myocardium would enhance cardiac differentiation. The tissue constructs were generated by integrating MSCs with elastic polyurethane nanofibers in an electrical field. Control of processing parameters resulted in tissue constructs recapitulating the fibrous and anisotropic structure, and typical stress-strain response of native porcine myocardium. MSCs proliferated in the tissue constructs when cultured dynamically, but retained a round morphology. mRNA expression demonstrated that cardiac differentiation was significantly stimulated. Enhanced cardiac differentiation was achieved by 3-D alignment of MSCs within the tissue constructs. Cell alignment was attained by statically stretching tissue constructs during culture. Increasing stretching strain from 25% to 75% increased the degree of 3-D cell alignment. Real time RT-PCR results showed that when cells assuming a high degree of alignment (with application of 75% strain), their expression of cardiac markers (GATA4, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C) remarkably increased. The differentiated cells also developed calcium channels, which are required to have electrophysiological properties. This report to some extent explains the outcome of many in vivo studies, where only a limited amount of the injected MSCs differentiated into cardiomyocytes. It is possible that the strain of the heartbeat (∼20%) cannot allow the MSCs to have an alignment high enough for a remarkable cardiac differentiation. This work suggests that pre-differentiation of MSCs into cardiomyocytes prior to injection may result in a greater degree of cardiac regeneration than simply injecting un-differentiated MSCs into heart.

Keywords
Electrospinning; Tissue-specific constructs; Mesenchymal stem cell; Myocardium
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The stimulation of the cardiac differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in tissue constructs that mimic myocardium structure and biomechanics
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 32, Issue 24, August 2011, Pages 5568–5580
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us