The performance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell – Implant complexes prepared by cell sheet engineering techniques
This study investigated the hypothesis that cell sheets composed of multilayered rabbit bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) could be assembled with two kinds of implants (surface-modified titanium and zirconia) for the construction of a MSC-implant. The MSC sheets were harvested from culture flasks, wrapped around implants to construct the complexes, and then cultured in osteogenic medium. The layered cell sheets integrated well with implants and remained viable, with small mineralized nodules visible on the implant surfaces for up to four weeks after culture. Cells on the implants underwent classical in vitro osteogenic differentiation with an associated elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity and bone- and vascular-related protein expression. In vivo, two kinds of cell sheet–implant complexes were transplanted under the skin of SCID mice and cultured for eight weeks. For the MSC sheet titanium implant complex, histological examination revealed that new bone tissue that formed around implants followed a predominantly endochondral pathway, exhibiting histological markers of native bone; for the MSC sheet zirconia implant complex, however, intramembranous ossification appeared to occur on the surface of the zirconia implant, as observed with typical osteocytes embedded in dense matrix and accompanied by both microvessels and marrow cavities. These findings demonstrate that MSC-implants possessing osteogenic and vascularization abilities can be produced using cell sheet engineering techniques in conjunction with routine implant materials, which provide a novel technology to modify the implant surface.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 12, April 2010, Pages 3212–3221