Macrophage differentiation and polarization on a decellularized pericardial biomaterial ☆
The monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM), present at biomaterial implantations, can increase, decrease or redirect the inflammatory and subsequent wound healing process associated with the presence of a biomaterial. Understanding MDM responses to biomaterials is important for improved prediction and design of biomaterials for tissue engineering. This study analyzed the direct differentiation of monocytes on intact, native collagen. Human monocytes were differentiated on decellularized bovine pericardium (DBP), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or polystyrene (TCPS) for 14 d. MDMs on all surfaces released high amounts of MMP-9 compared to MMP-2 and relatively little MMP-1. MDMs differentiated on DBP released more MMP-2, but less acid phosphatase activity. MDMs on all three surfaces released low amounts of cytokines, although substrate differences were found: MDMs on DBP released higher amounts of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 but lower amounts of IL-10 and IL-1ra. This research provides evidence that MDMs on decellularized matrices may not be stimulated towards an activated, inflammatory phenotype, supporting the potential of decellularized matrices for tissue engineering. This study also demonstrated that the differentiation surface affects MDM phenotype and therefore study design of macrophage interactions with biomaterials should scrutinize the specific macrophage culture method utilized and its effects on macrophage phenotype.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 32, Issue 2, January 2011, Pages 439–449